• seeds are edible after drying, popping, or frying, and can subsequently be ground to flour.
  • seeds can be taken from dried capsules.
  • rhizome is edible after prolonged boiling with several changes of water.
  • rhizome can be roasted or boiled, then peeled and either eaten or thinly sliced for drying and then either stored or ground into flour .
  • varieties in the Pacific Northwest are Yellow cow-lily (Nuphar lutea) and Western cow-lily (Nuphar polysepala).
  • grows in shallow, calm water in plains, montane, and subalpine regions.
  • warning: eat in moderation, large amounts may be poisonous.
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